Haematuria, also known as ‘Blood in Pee’, is a common problem that requires investigation to see if there is a serious underlying problem as its cause. It is important to distinguish between visible (a.k.a. macroscopic, frank, gross) and non-visible (a.k.a. microscopic, dipstick) haematuria, since the risk of having a sinister underlying cause is much higher if the blood is visible.
If you have visible haematuria and visit your GP, you should be referred to a urologist for evaluation. The urologist will take your history and examine you. The investigations carried out involve blood tests, a scan of the kidneys (either ultrasound or CT scan), and a telescope examination of the bladder called cystoscopy.
There are many possible causes for haematuria, including bladder cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, penile cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney stones, nephritis, trauma, prostatitis, urethritis, papillary necrosis, interstitial cystitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, cystitis cystica, and many more. The investigations aim to determine whether you have any of these.